Speaker’s notes

ObamaNotes

Obama’s notes from State of Union address 2013

Most speakers at some point will lose their train of thought or get stuck for words. It happens to me regularly. This isn’t a sign of memory loss or early senility. It’s just that when you have a lot on your mind you sometimes get lost.

But it can be quite anxious-making. Having something to fall back on is a good idea. Which is where notes come in. What type of notes should you use? Well it depends.

A full script

If you are giving a big talk to an important group then it is wise to prepare detailed notes. You probably won’t need to read from them but they are reassurance that if you get nervous you have something to fall back on.

When writing notes remember that speaking is different from writing. When you speak you are more informal/unstructured than in writing. So once you’ve written your script, read it out to see if it flows.

NotesSizesBut a densely packed page of font size 12 is not going to help much. When you get anxious the words on a page will turn into a moving sea of letters and a simple task like finding your place on the page becomes very difficult.

 

So:

  • make the font size 14 or 16, maybe even 18
  • double space the text so it’s easier to read
  • you can use a highlighter pen to mark key words which will remind you of what to say
  • you can handwrite key words in the margins, again to remind you of what to say
  • number the pages to keep track of where you are.

Conference papers

Once you have written your conference paper it’s very easy to think that this is your script. It’s not. If you start reading your paper you will quickly lose your audience. They can read faster than you can speak so they will stop listening and start reading. You need to create a different set of notes for your talk. In your talk you will be highlighting key points – not going into every minute detail.

Another fundamental difference is that we speak differently from the way we write. When we speak we tend to use shorter sentences. When we write, sentences can be long and often complicated. In speaking we also tend to be more informal and not always grammatically correct.

This is one reason why a person reading a paper can appear quite stilted. Academic papers are also generally written in the passive voice, for example:

“The survey was administered to 30 subjects”.

People generally speak in the active voice, for example:

“We gave the survey to 30 participants”.

Key points

If you feel confident you might use key points. Many people use PowerPoint for this purpose. The key words will trigger you to elaborate and remind you of the content.

Even if you are using key points you might decide to write out some parts in full, for example, if you need to explain a complicated concept; if you have a specific story or example that it is important to get right; or if there are complicated words or names.

Cue/index cards

cue2Some people use index cards rather than A4 sheets of paper. The index cards are not a full script, just reminders of key points. They are easy to carry around and limit you to key points. However, if you’re nervous you might drop them and then lose your place. So some people number them, punch a hole in them and tie them together.

PowerPoint for notes

In PowerPoint you can create a notes page for each slide. You can print these out to refer to as you go through the slides.

Extract from Presenting your Research with Confidence, Hugh Kearns.

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The presenter’s survival kit

If you present regularly you’ll know the experience. You turn up at the venue but there are no markers. Or worse, there are markers but they don’t work because they’ve run dry. Or you’ve forgotten your watch and the room doesn’t have a clock. Or worse it does have a clock but it doesn’t work because nobody has changed the batteries.

As a result of many experiences like this I now carry a presenter’s survival kit. Let’s look at what’s in it.

A remote presenter with laser pointer

If you are going to be presenting regularly pointerthen a remote presenter is an essential part of your kit. They come with a USB stick that you put into the USB drive of the computer and that’s it. No software required. You get them in electronics shops and they cost between $50 and $100.

To use it you hold the remote presenter in your hand and by pressing a button move your PowerPoint forward or backward one slide at a time. This means you don’t have to stay beside the keyboard all through your presentation. Most remote presenters also come with an in-built laser pointer which is really neat for pointing out parts of your slide.

A clock

It is useful to have a small clock that you can put on the lectern to keep track of time. It needs to be something that balances easily on sloped lecterns. It should have big digital numbers so that you can read it easily when you are blinded by anxiety. You can use a watch but it needs to have numbers you can read easily. You could use the clock in your mobile phone but what if it rings! The clock I use is a small travel clock that folds up so it can fit in my pocket.

Water

waterOne of the symptoms of anxiety is a dry mouth and sometimes a dry throat. In addition, talking can dry up your mouth and throat. To overcome this, bring a bottle of water with you. Have a few sips before you start. And if you need to, have some sips during your talk too.

 

 

Markers

Markerlaw1I’ve created some laws about whiteboard markers.

Hugh’s first law of whiteboard markers:

There will be a whiteboard in the room but there won’t be any markers.

 

 

Markerlaw2Hugh’s second law of whiteboard markers:

If there are markers in the room, they will have run dry.

 

 

 

Hugh’s third law of whiteboard markers:

Markerlaw3If there is one marker that hasn’t run dry and you start using it, you will then find out that it is a permanent marker. (That’s why it hasn’t run dry!)

So to outwit these laws I bring along my own non-permanent whiteboard markers.

 

Eraser

Hugh’s law of whiteboard erasers

If you do find a non-permanent marker that works and you fill up the board you will then not be able to find a whiteboard eraser. Nor will you be able to find any tissues. You will be reduced to asking an audience member for a second-hand handkerchief. To avoid this embarrassing situation my survival kit includes a whiteboard eraser.

survivalchecklistSo before you set off for your presentation make sure you have your survival kit. Go through the checklist so that you don’t forget anything.

You can download this checklist in the Free Downloads section of this blog.

 

 

Extract from Presenting your Research with Confidence, Hugh Kearns

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Managing slip-ups

Even the very best and most prepared speakers will make mistakes. You will make mistakes. I make slip-ups. It happens.

BackspaceFor example you might:

  • forget a word
  • mispronounce a word
  • find a spelling mistake on your PowerPoint
  • miss out a slide
  • leave something out

The main advice is not to let minor slip-ups put you off your stride. Firstly, if no-one has noticed, just carry on. Unless it’s central to your presentation they’re not going to know what you’ve left out! So just carry on.

 

If you do need to go back and include a point or talk about a slide don’t make a big fuss, such as:

“Oh I forgot to mention …

I know this is out of order but …”

 

Instead you could simply say:

“There is one additional point I want to make about …”.

 

If you stumble over a word just say:

“Sorry” and repeat it.

If you really mangle a sentence you could say:

“Let me try that again. In English this time!”

 

If your mind goes blank and you can’t remember a name or a fact or the right word just say:

“The detail has slipped my mind for a moment. It’ll come back to me”. Or

“I’ve had a blank. I’ll come back to that”.

Then move on.

Don’t keep thinking about your mistake. That will make things worse. Move on to the next thing. Don’t draw attention to spelling mistakes and other minor mishaps. If you do start to get anxious, take a breath, have a sip of water, compose yourself and focus on the next bit.

And after the event don’t beat yourself up about slip-ups. You can fix things up the next time, but for now, focus on what worked.

Remember we all make mistakes.

Extract from Presenting your Research with Confidence, Hugh Kearns

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Public speaking and the imposter syndrome

Who hasn’t felt like an imposter when they think about standing up to give a public presentation? You might have to stand up in front of an audience, it could be a team meeting, a class seminar or a conference in front of one thousand people.

In those moments before they call out your name, imposteryou get that sick feeling in your stomach, your hands and knees shake, your heart pounds. You worry that you’re going to open your mouth and say something stupid (or worse, say nothing) and then they’re going to realise that you have no idea what you’re talking about. And there will be that horrible uncomfortable silence, or worse, they will laugh or ridicule you.

You are going to be in the glaring spotlight. Even putting yourself forward is a terrible risk. Who am I to think I could do this? Maybe they’ll ask a question I can’t answer. They’ll find out that I don’t know very much at all. The other presenters are so much better. Who am I to be standing up here in front of all these people? You scan the room and feel all those eyes focused on you. It’s like being caught naked or exposed. What if they laugh? If they are bored? If they just think it’s silly?

It’s a bit like the emperor’s new clothes. You are standing up there hoping they will like what you say but worried that they’ll see right through you! At any point, someone could call out “You don’t know anything”.

As a result, many people avoid presentations. Or only do them when there is no way out and, therefore, don’t do enough of them to get good at it. They miss out on the many opportunities that come from putting yourself forward.

Extract from The Imposter Syndrome.

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BME: structuring your talk

It’s important to have some structure in your talk. How do you do that? Well here’s a simple idea. How about having a beginning, middle and end?

bme

A beginning, middle and end.

And a very nice and simple structure is to link your beginning and end.

bmelink

Link you ending back to your beginning.

For example:

bmelinkphrases

Linking the end back to the beginning.

Sometimes at the start of my workshops for PhD students I tell a story about a PhD student called Frank and some of the difficulties he faced and in particular the isolation he felt along the way.

Then I move on to other content but at the end I sometimes say: Remember at the start I talked about Frank. Well he applied some of the strategies I’ve talked about today; he developed networks; he got a routine going and made some small changes. And the good news is that just recently he sent me an email saying that his PhD had been accepted. (Frank by the way is real, although I always change names to protect the innocent.)

 

Some phrases you can use to make the link between the beginning and the end are:

As I told you at the start …

Remember at the start I mentioned …

When I started I told you the story…

Which brings us back to where we started …

As I said at the start it’s important to have some structure in your talk. And how do you do that? Well as you’ve seen a simple way is to have a beginning, a middle and an end.

Extract from Presenting your Research with Confidence, Hugh Kearns

 

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If English isn’t your first language

If English isn’t your first language it can be very daunting to have to stand up and make a presentation in English. Most people find public speaking difficult in their native language. It’s even harder when it’s not your first language. It can be even worse if you have a very pronounced accent or a very quiet voice. So here are some suggestions.

Practice

You will need to spend more time practicing. Present the talk to the mirror, to the dog, to your friends, to anyone. The more often you practice, the easier it will become.

spectacularSpend extra time on complicated words and phrases. Get someone to help you with pronunciation of difficult words. You might need to write them out in a way you can understand them. Many words are pronounced differently from how they look written down.

You must have written notes. These are your fall-back if you get confused or anxious.

 

 

Take every opportunity to speak

It’s tempting to avoid speaking; to tell yourself I’ll wait until my English is better, or my results are clearer, or whatever. The reality is that the only way to get better at speaking is… to speak. So take small less threatening opportunities when they arise, for example, speaking at a team meeting, a lab meeting, with friends, at a course.

Accents

If you have a particularly strong accent that might be difficult to understand, then slow down your delivery. You can also put more words on your PowerPoint slides or handouts. This way your audience can check the written material if they get lost. Don’t put everything on PowerPoint. Just the complicated bits.

Volume

Many people have quiet voices. This is okay in day-to-day conversations but when you are making a presentation you need to be heard. Think about whether the person at the back of the room can hear you easily.

In general most people need to speak more loudly. You need to practice doing this so it feels more comfortable to you. At the beginning you will feel like you’re shouting, but keep at it. After a little practice you will work out the volume you need. If you want to check this out, get a friend to go to the venue with you and stand at the back while you speak. They need to be able to hear you clearly. Remember when the room is full of people there will also be background noise.

twain

Understanding questions

Most of us are anxious when presenting, which means we don’t have many brain cells free to listen to questions and think up appropriate responses. This is even harder when you’re working in a second language. Firstly, you have to try and understand the question, then think of the answer and put it into words.

If you haven’t understood the question you could ask the person to repeat it or put it into different words. For example:

“I’m not sure I fully understand your question. Could you rephrase it please?”

If you are not confident about understanding the questions one alternative is to bring someone with you who can translate for you or clarify it in words you understand. Or ask someone in the audience to clarify it.

For example:

“I’m sorry. I’m not understanding the question fully. Can someone help?”

The good thing about being a non-native speaker is that your audience will probably understand and be more forgiving of any slips.

Extract from Presenting your Research with Confidence, Hugh Kearns

 

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Five conference fails and easy fixes

FiveFails

I’ve been to many conferences in my time. Too many. And while there have been some great presentations there have also been some epic fails. Fails which could have been easily avoided. I was at a conference recently so here are five fails I came across and five fixes.

1. Not familiar with content

While the presenter was well qualified in their subject area they clearly weren’t familiar with their own presentation. They didn’t seem to know which slide was coming next and even why some of the slides were there at all.

I suspect this happens because many presenters are putting their presentation together at the last minute – often on the plane to the conference or late the night before. This means that there isn’t enough time for them to practice the content. Their first run through of the material is in front of the live audience.

Fix: Practice, practice, practice

Practice means reading through your notes and the slides many times. But it also means reading the content out loud. It will sound a lot different than reading it quietly in your head.

2. Reading a paper

The presenter wrote an academic paper and then proceeded to read it to us. Reading anything reduces the spontaneity but reading an academic paper is mind-numbing. The problem is that we don’t talk the way we write. When you write you will be trying hard to be grammatically correct. You’ll probably have long sentences and complicated words. When we speak naturally, we are not always grammatically correct, we use shorter sentences, and more commonly used words. So reading an academic paper often comes across as stilted.

Fix: Write out what you will say

As well as the academic paper you need to prepare notes of what you will actually say. These need to be written in a more conversational style. You probably won’t read these but they are your back-up. And don’t assume you’ll remember clever things to say on the day. When you are anxious, all those good ideas will disappear. So write them down.

3. Technology fails

The person brought along their own laptop which of course didn’t easily attach to the connections on the lectern. When they did finally get it connected, their desktop appeared on the projection screen and as they searched through their files we all got to view their recently downloaded movies and various other files. Another person thought it would be a good idea to have their notes on their tablet, which of course froze half-way through their presentation.

Fix: Check and double check the technology

Technology will always let you down and the more stressed you are the more likely it is that things will go wrong. So check everything out, with the equipment in the venue, several times before your talk. And keep things as simple as you can. Print out your notes because paper always works.

4. Timing fails

Over and over again presenters said “I’m out of time but there’s a few slides I’ll just go through quickly”. Which meant that the presentation ended in a bit of a rush and often the key point was lost.

Fix: Read your presentation out loud and time yourself

Practice reading your presentation out loud with a timer. If your slot is for 15 minutes and you’ve got 25 minutes worth of material go though and delete 10 minutes worth of content. Then read it out loud again and time yourself again.

5. Too much information

The difficulty for many of the presenters was that they wanted to present their last three years of research in 15 minutes. And so they packed in far too much information, far too many slides, too many tables and graphs, too many words. Which meant as an audience member I was overwhelmed by too much detail and really couldn’t figure out what the main point was. I think another reason presenters do this is that they are worried about running out of things to say. In my experience this has rarely been a problem.

Fix: Two or three main points and leave out a lot

Identify two or three main points that you want to get across. Include these in your introduction, elaborate on them in the main part of your talk and then summarise them again at the end. This will mean leaving out a whole lot of detail. You can mention that more information is available if people want to talk to you afterwards.

 

Most of thFiveFailse fixes I’ve suggested come down to preparation and practice. We all know that we get better at things the more we practice them.

The first time is not going to be great, the second time will be better and by the fifth time it might be getting good.

For most presenters their first practice is the final run so no wonder things go wrong. Practice is the key.

 

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The 3MT Success Story

3mtlogoLast week I was visiting the University of Queensland, which aside from having a beautiful campus, is the home to an astonishing success story, the three minute thesis.

It’s astonishing because the first three minute thesis competition only took place at UQ in 2008 and now just eight years later 350 universities are involved in 18 countries. And when I visit universities around Australia or New Zealand or the UK they are all busily getting ready for faculty heats or university finals or for the national and international competition. And the term three minute thesis is in common usage as though it had existed forever.

So while I was at UQ I thought I’d find out more about how it had come about. I spoke to Selina Weller, Engagement and Development Coordinator, who is responsible for organising the 3MT and also a good friend Tony Miscamble who was there at the start. Tony told me that the Dean of the Graduate School at the time, Alan Lawson, had the original idea and then Alan, the Deputy Dean Christa Critchley, and Tony workshopped the design to be more-or-less what it is today.

The first competition was in 2008 with 160 participants. The concept was presented to other universities at an ARTA conference and at the Quality in Post-graduate Research conference in 2010. Here’s a link to that paper: http://www.qpr.edu.au/2010/miscamble2010.pdf

In 2010, 27 Australian and four New Zealand universities took part in the first trans-Tasman competition. And now it’s spread to 350 universities and 18 countries.

9hoursThe idea is simple. You get three minutes and one slide to explain your research to a non-specialist audience. The challenge is to condense two or three years work into something meaningful in three minutes.

3mtwhatisit

From the UQ 3MT website: www.threeminutethesis.org

 

I’m a great supporter. I think it’s a great chance for research students to develop their presentation skills, to learn how to make their research accessible and to develop their confidence. Of course it’s nice to win but with the 3MT the real benefit is the experience and confidence you develop.

It’s happening at a university near you right now. If you don’t know much about it go along to the competition and see how it works. Maybe next year you might give it a go. And if you are involved good luck and enjoy the experience.

Find out more about the 3MT at www.threeminutethesis.org

 

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First Impressions

First impressionsFirstImpression

We make up our minds about people very quickly. Think about talks you’ve been to. Sometimes even before the person speaks you’ve already formed some opinion about him/her, for example, confident, unsure, dis-organised. If you make a good start both you and the listeners will be much happier.

 

The purposes of the beginning are to:

Get the audience’s attention 

Usually at the start of a talk people’s attention is very scattered. Some of them are busy trying to find a seat, talking to the person beside them, wondering where the handouts are, did they turn off the iron, who is the person beside them and so on. You need to get their attention. Ironically one of the ways to get their attention is to say nothing. That’s right – just pause for a few seconds while you get organised.

Introduce yourself and build credibility

This is your chance to build your credibility – to explain to them why they should bother listening to you. Use this opportunity to create a good impression. This is not the time to say “This is my first talk” or “I’m sure you know more about the topic than I do”. If you’ve been asked to give a talk then someone must think you know something.

Introduce the topic

This is where you explain to the audience what you are going to talk about and the approach you are going to take. You will probably refer to the take-home message and explain why they should listen to you. You use the beginning or the introduction to set the scene for the talk and to overview the territory you’re going to cover.

Note: if others introduce you

FieldmouseAt many conferences there will be a Master of Ceremonies (MC) or a convenor who will introduce the speakers. I’ve done this job and part of it involves searching for interesting things to say about people. Usually you go to the abstract or whatever information has been provided. So it’s important that you give the MC some good information. Think about how you’d like them to introduce you. Write it out and give it to the MC beforehand.

 

Talking to experts

You might be anxious because you will be presenting to a group of experts who know more about the topic than you do. In this case you might acknowledge that by saying:

“I know you are very familiar with the field mouse. What I’m going to do in this talk is provide my perspective on …”

or

“I’m going to describe the work my group have been doing …”

 This way you are not challenging the experts, simply reporting what you have found. They might disagree with your approach but it’s harder to disagree with what you’ve found.

 

How to start

As I’ve said it’s important to make a good start so here are some techniques to use.IntheBeginning1

Opening phrases/examples

  • Good morning.
  • Thank you for coming along.
  • I have been studying the field mouse for X years.
  • Today I’m going to be talking about …
  • In this talk I’d like to tell you about …
  • As X has said, for the past three years my research group has been …

 

 

Opening stories

You could start your talk by telling a relevant story.

For example: Today I’m going to talk about the field mouse. I’ll start by telling you a story of what happened on a field trip recently …

Clearly the story needs to be relevant!

 

Case studies

You could start by using a case study from the data to highlight a point.

For example: I’m going to be talking about X. To illustrate let me describe the case of …

 

Opening questions

A question can be a good way of getting attention at the beginning of your talk.

For example: Have you ever wondered what field mice get up to after dark?

Does anyone know how many field mice there are in Australia?

 

Quote

A famous quote

You could use a famous quotation or comment if it is relevant to your topic.

 

 

Cartoons or images

You can use a cartoon or image as a way of opening your talk. Just find one that has some relevance to your topic.

 

An unusual fact or statement

Not many people know that there are more field mice in Australia than people. (This fact may not be true. I’m not a field mouse expert!)

 

Something topical

There may be something topical in your field or in current affairs at the time. What is on the front page of the newspaper? Is there some way you can link this to your topic?

Humour

The problem with using humour is that you need to be very good at it. Not everyone can tell good jokes or stories. Remember that some people spend years training to be professional comedians and even then some of them are not very good! People have different senses of humour. So be careful about using humour. If you do tell a joke you must memorise it and practise it. Jokes depend on timing and remembering the punchline!

 

Overlearn your opening lines

You want to make a good first impression but, of course, those first few moments are when you are likely to be at your most anxious. To deal with this I suggest overlearning your opening:

  • learn your opening few lines by heart
  • practise it so that you can do it even when your heart is pounding
  • have it written out word for word so that if you go blank there’s a safety net

 

Once the opening lines are over, most people settle down from hysteria to normal levels of panic!

 

Extract from Presenting your Research with Confidence, Hugh Kearns.

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Practice, practice, practice

WhyPracticeHow do you get to Carnegie Hall?
Practice, practice, practice.

How do get better at tennis? Practice, practice, practice.

How do you get better at giving a talk?
Practice, practice, practice.

There are different types of practice. Let’s look at them.

Read your presentation

Read through what you are going to say. See if there are gaps or any changes you want to make. Match up your notes to the PowerPoint slides. It’s a good idea to note the slide number (or name) on your notes.

Say it out loud

Speaking is different from reading. When you read it out loud you will become aware of how the words flow, awkward sentences, and where pauses and emphasis should be. If you do want to stress certain words then underline them or highlight them. Remove tongue twisters and words that you find hard to say.

Practice it with some background noise, like a radio or a CD playing. When you really deliver it there will be background noise such as people moving around, doors opening and closing. You will need to speak loudly enough to be heard.

Deliver it to someone – the dog if no-one else will listen

I know it’s embarrassing but if you can get someone to listen to you they can give you some feedback. Make sure it’s a kind person. It will also give you a sense of what the talk sounds like when someone is listening. Your dog or cat is unlikely to be too interested in your topic but they won’t say nasty things either!

Check your timing

When most of us present in public we get anxious and tend to speak faster. I think we are trying to get to the finish point quickly which can leave a big gap at the end. Or you might get distracted on some point and spend a long time on it meaning you run out of time towards the end. Either way it’s useful to have a sense of the timeframe for your talk. The way to do this is to note on your script the time at different parts. For example, how long did the introduction take, when you finish the first point how much time should be gone?

This will be useful when you are delivering your presentation as you can see if you are ahead or behind. If you are ahead of time then you can make yourself slow down or elaborate on certain points. If you have fallen behind time then you may have to leave out some points.

In the venue

Practicing at home is great but it’s very different from the venue. The layout will be different, the place to put your notes and your water, where you will stand. Being in the venue gives you a much better sense of what the talk will be like. It also helps you visualise the talk and imagine yourself giving a great presentation. So if you are at a conference make sure you find your venue during a break, stand at the podium and get used to the feel of the room.

Practice using the equipment

PracticeBookPageBeginners make the mistake of assuming all computers are the same. “If it works on my computer at home it will surely work in the presentation venue.” They are almost invariably wrong.

Firstly the software may be different, or a different version, or may do funny things to your fonts or images (this is a good reason to use standard fonts in your PowerPoint).

Secondly the physical computer will be different. The buttons may be in different places, the USB drive may be in a different place, there might not be a mouse so you have to use that microscopic toggle thing in the middle of the keyboard. Even a simple task of pressing a computer key can be a challenge when anxiety has turned your hands into paws.

A very common problem is getting to the venue and starting to load your presentation only to find that a password is required. And you don’t know it. And nobody else knows it either. Or even more basic – that the cabinet the computer is in is locked and you can’t put your USB memory stick in. All of these things have happened to me (once!) – and all can be prevented by checking out the venue.

Borrow from an expert

A strategy some people use is to think of a speaker they admire. Then imagine how they would present. Visualise their confidence, their presence. Now practise your talk but imagine you are them. Take on some of their qualities for your presentation.

Memorise your first lines

It’s a good idea to learn your opening few lines off by heart. This is when you will be most nervous. If you can get off to a good start it calms you down for the rest of the talk. If you have a particular opening you use regularly, then learn it by heart.

Only for the brave

It’s a scary thing to listen to yourself on an audio tape. It doesn’t sound like the you, you know. That’s because we hear our voices from inside our head while others hear the real us. It can take a while to get used to hearing your own voice. But if you can bear it, it will help you work out where you might change your pace, emphasis, clarity and volume.

Even more daunting is to watch yourself on video. Most people’s reaction is to say “I don’t look like that do I?” Once again it will give you insights into how you come across. But generally I only recommend this once you have developed some confidence.

So in summary some practice strategies are:

  • read your presentation
  • say it out loud
  • deliver it to a friendly person (or dog)
  • check your timing
  • practice in the venue
  • practice using the equipment you will be using
  • borrow from an expert
  • memorise your first few lines

And finally – practice, practice, practice.

 

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